Many theories about discipline shift attention from external punishment and reward systems to internalization of socialization skills and moral sense. For example, in Schools Without Failure, William Glasser explains the short-term value of external punishment and the limitations of trying to control others through fear tactics. Theorists like Abraham Maslow, in Motivation and Personality, and W. Edwards Deming, in Out of the Crisis, suggest a return to humane education principles and affirmation of human goodness. Many thinkers want educational institutions to find their path into a new way of being that creates the learning moment, which sees misbehavior as an opportunity and instills faith in human nature as it pursues learning and instructs through misconduct. Marvin Marshall, in Discipline Without Stress, Punishment, or Rewards, urges people to remember that so long as they are manipulated by out-ward threats of punishment or hopes of reward, they may be neglecting intrinsic values which in the end are the ones that satisfy, induce self-control, and energize toward self-improvement. These affirmations have to be balanced with the seriousness of turn-of-the-millennium juvenile crimes and the awesome responsibility of educators to keep children safe while they engage in learning.
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