Title IX and Sex Discrimination in Amateur Athletics

Sex discrimination is a hotly debated and litigated issue in amateur athletics. Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 provides that “[n]o person in the United States may, upon the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal finan-cial assistance.” 20 U.S.C.A. ยงยง 1681 et seq. The phrase “education program or activity” has been broadly interpreted to include athletic programs. Title IX may be enforced by the federal government in an administrative proceeding or by a private individual in civil court. The law guarantees equal protection at all federally funded academic institutions for both male and female student-athletes and male and female persons employed by school athletic programs.


Inside Title IX and Sex Discrimination in Amateur Athletics